With a population about 5 million according to the 2006 census, Bauchi State has gone through a tremendous transformation since it was created. During the colonial era up to independence, it formed part of the Bauchi-Plateau of the then Northern Region, until the 1967 state creation exercise, when the Bauchi, Borno, and Adamawa provinces constituted the former North-Eastern State.
With the creation of Bauchi state in 1976, then comprising present Bauchi and Gombe states, it included 16 Local Government Areas. The number of Local Government Areas in the then Bauchi State was increased to 20 and later to 23. However, in 1997 when Gombe state was created out of Bauchi and additional local governments were created in the country, Bauchi State was left with 20 Local Government Areas as shown below.
Bauchi State is located between latitudes 9° 3′ and 12° 3′ north of the equator with a total land area of 49,119 km² representing about 5.3% of Nigeria’s total land mass. The state is bordered by seven states; namely Kano and Jigawa to the north, Taraba and Plateau to the south, Gombe and Yobe to the east and Kaduna to the west.
Bauchi state has two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan Savannah and the Sahel Savannah. Sudan savannah vegetation covers the southern part of Bauchi state where the vegetation gets richer and richer towards the south, especially along water sources or rivers, but generally, the vegetation is less uniform and grasses are shorter than what grows even farther south, that is, in the forest zone of the middle belt.
Sahel type of the savannah, which is also known as the semi-desert vegetation, becomes manifest from the middle of the state as one moves from the state’s south to its north. This type of vegetation comprises isolated stands of thorny shrubs. On the other hand, the southwestern part of the state is mountainous as a result of the continuation of the Jos Plateau, while the northern part is generally sandy.